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The history of immigration to the United States details the movement of people to the United States starting with the first European settlements from around Beginning around this time, British and other Europeans settled primarily on the east coast.

In , Africans began being imported as slaves. The United States experienced successive waves of immigration, particularly from Europe.

Immigrants sometimes paid the cost of transoceanic transportation by becoming indentured servants after their arrival in the New World.

Later, immigration rules became more restrictive; the ending of numerical restrictions occurred in Recently, cheap air travel has increased immigration from Asia and Latin America.

Attitudes towards new immigrants have cycled between favorable and hostile since the s. In the first successful English colony settled in Jamestown, Virginia.

Once tobacco was found to be a profitable cash crop , many plantations were established along the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and Maryland.

Thus began the first and longest era of immigration, lasting until the American Revolution in ; during this time settlements grew from initial English toe-holds from the New World to British America.

The British ruled from the midth century and they were by far the largest group of arrivals, remaining within the British Empire.

Large numbers of young men and women came alone as indentured servants. Their passage was paid by employers in the colonies who needed help on the farms or in shops.

Indentured servants were provided food, housing, clothing and training but they did not receive wages. At the end of the indenture usually around age 21 they were free to marry and start their own farms.

Seeking religious freedom in the New World, one hundred English Pilgrims established a small settlement near Plymouth, Massachusetts in Large scale immigration to this region ended before , though a small but steady trickle of later arrivals continued.

The New English colonists were the most urban and educated of all their contemporaries, and they had many skilled farmers, tradesmen and craftsmen among them.

They started the first university , Harvard , in in order to train their ministers. They mostly settled in small villages for mutual support nearly all of them had their own militias and common religious activities.

Shipbuilding, commerce, agriculture, and fishing were their main sources of income. New England's healthy climate the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects , small widespread villages minimizing the spread of disease , and an abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and the highest birth rate of any of the colonies.

The Eastern and Northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the descendants of the original New Englanders.

Wealthy Dutch patroons set up large landed estates along the Hudson River and brought in farmers who became renters. The earlier colony of New Sweden had small settlements on the lower Delaware River , with immigrants of Swedes and Finns.

These colonies were absorbed by The middle colonies' were scattered West of New York City established ; taken over by the English in and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania established The initial Dutch colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about From around to , the Pennsylvania colonial center was dominated by the Quakers for decades after they emigrated, mainly from the North Midlands of England.

During this time, the main commercial center of Philadelphia was run mostly by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities, with a strong German contingent located in several small towns in the Delaware River valley.

Starting around , when Pennsylvania was founded, many more settlers arrived to the middle colonies. Many Protestant sects were encouraged to settle there for freedom of religion and good, cheap land.

The colonial frontier was mainly settled from about to These were mostly Presbyterian settlers from North England border lands, Scotland , and Ulster , fleeing hard times and religious persecution.

Some French Huguenots and Germans were also present. Between , and , Scotch-Irish migrated to America in the 18th century.

Areas where people reported ' American ' ancestry were the places where, historically, northern English, Scottish and Scotch-Irish Protestants settled: They were heavily Presbyterian, and largely self-sufficient.

The Scotch-Irish arrived in large numbers during the early 18th century and they often preferred to settle in the back country and the frontier from Pennsylvania to Georgia, where they mingled with second generation and later English settlers.

They enjoyed the very cheap land and independence from established governments common to frontier settlements.

Often, the main port of entry for these immigrants was Philadelphia, after which they or, in many cases, their descendants migrated west and south.

The mostly agricultural Southern English colonies initially had very high death rates for new settlers due to malaria , yellow fever , and other diseases as well as skirmishes with Native Americans.

Despite this, a steady flow of new settlers, mostly from Central England and the London area, kept up population growth.

Initially, the large plantations were mostly owned by friends mostly minor aristocrats of the British-appointed governors. A group of Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlanders created a settlement at Cape Fear in North Carolina, which remained culturally distinct until the midth century, at which point it was swallowed up by the dominant English-origin culture.

After their terms of indentures expired, most of the indentures settled small farms on the frontier. After , the initial areas of settlement had been largely cleared of Native Americans by major outbreaks of measles , smallpox , and bubonic plague beginning decades before the settlers began arriving in large numbers.

The leading killer was smallpox, which arrived in the New World around — While the thirteen colonies differentiated in how they were settled and by whom, they had many commonalities.

Nearly all were settled and financed by privately organized British settlers or families using free enterprise without any significant English Royal or Parliamentary government support or input.

Nearly all commercial activity was run in small, privately owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England, which was essential since they were often cash poor.

Most settlements were nearly independent of British trade since they grew or made nearly everything they needed; the average cost of imports per household was 5—15 pounds per year.

Most settlements were created by complete family groups with several generations often present. After , as the Industrial Revolution progressed, more of the population started to move to cities, much like what had happened in Britain.

Initially, the Dutch and German Americans primarily spoke dialects brought over from Europe, while English was the main trade language.

Governments and laws primarily copied the English. The only major British institution to be abandoned was the aristocracy , noted by nearly universal absence.

The settlers generally established their own popularly elected governments and courts on as many levels as they could and were nearly all, within a few years, self-governing, self-supporting, and self-replicating.

This self-ruling pattern became so ingrained that almost all new settlements would have their own government up and running shortly after arrival for the next years.

Even here the immigrants came mostly from England and Scotland with the exception of a large Germanic contingent to Pennsylvania. Elsewhere internal American migration from other colonies provided nearly all of the settlers for each new colony or state.

Over half of all new British immigrants in the South initially arrived as indentured servants. In addition, about 60, British convicts were transported to the British colonies in the 18th century.

Most of these so-called convicts were guilty of being very poor and out of work. Ironically, these "convicts" are often the only immigrants with nearly complete immigration records as other immigrants typically showed up with few or no records.

The settlers were forced to leave temporarily for 12 years — by the Pueblo Revolt before returning. Spanish Texas lasted from to when Texas was governed as a colony which was separate from New Spain.

In Spanish settlers founded Los Angeles. At the time they joined the U. New Mexico had 47, Spanish settlers in Arizona was only thinly settled. However, not all these settlers were of European descent.

As in the rest of the American colonies, new settlements were based on the casta system, and although all could speak Spanish, it was really a melting pot of whites, Natives, and mestizos.

The city of Detroit was the third largest settlement in New France. New Orleans expanded when several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia now Nova Scotia , Canada made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion, settling largely in the Southwest Louisiana region now called Acadiana.

Their descendants are now called Cajun and still dominate the coastal areas. The following were the countries of origin for new arrivals to the United States before The ancestry of the 3.

The Irish in the census were mostly Scotch-Irish. The French were primarily Huguenots. The Native American population inside territorial U.

The population reflected the loss of approximately 46, Loyalists , or "Tories", who immigrated to Canada at the end of the American Revolution, 10, who went to England and 6, to the Caribbean.

The USA of recorded 3. Of the total white population of just under 3. The number of Scots was ,; Irish and Scot-Irish , Many were descendants of English Catholics settlers in the 17th century.

The rest were Irish, German and some Acadians who remained. In this era the population roughly doubled mostly due to natural increase every 23 years.

Relentless population expansion pushed the U. Most immigrants came long distances to settle in the U. However, many Irish left Canada for the U.

French Canadians who came down from Quebec after and the Mexicans who came north after found it easier to move back and forth. There was relatively little immigration from to ; while there was significant emigration from the U.

Large scale immigration resumed in the s from Britain, Ireland, Germany, and other parts of Central Europe as well as Scandinavia. Most were attracted by the cheap farmland.

Some were artisans and skilled factory workers attracted by the first stage of industrialization.

The Irish Catholics were primarily unskilled workers who built a majority of the canals and railroads, settling in urban areas.

Many Irish went to the emerging textile mill towns of the Northeast, while others became longshoremen in the growing Atlantic and Gulf port cities.

Half the Germans headed to farms, especially in the Midwest with some to Texas , while the other half became craftsmen in urban areas. Nativism took the form of political anti-Catholicism directed mostly at the Irish as well as Germans.

It became important briefly in the mids in the guise of the Know Nothing party. During the Civil War, ethnic communities supported the war and produced large numbers of soldiers on both sides.

Riots broke out in New York City and other Irish and German strongholds in when a draft was instituted, particularly in light of the provision exempting those who could afford payment.

Based on available records, immigration totaled 8, in , with immigration totals gradually increasing to 23, by the year ; for the s decade immigration more than doubled to , Between and , immigration more than quadrupled to a total of , These included about , Irish, starting to emigrate in large numbers following Britain's easing of travel restrictions, and about , Germans, 76, British, and 46, French, constituting the next largest immigrant groups of the decade.

Between and , immigration nearly tripled again, totaling 1,, immigrants, including at least , Irish, , Germans, , British, and 77, French. The Irish, driven by the Potato Famine — , emigrated directly from their homeland to escape poverty and death.

The failed revolutions of brought many intellectuals and activists to exile in the U. Bad times and poor conditions in Europe drove people out, while land, relatives, freedom, opportunity, and jobs in the US lured them in.

Starting in , some federal records, including ship passenger lists, were kept for immigration purposes, and a gradual increase in immigration was recorded; more complete immigration records provide data on immigration after Though conducted since , the census of was the first in which place of birth was asked specifically.

The foreign-born population in the U. By , most of the immigrants who arrived before the American Revolution had died, and there had been almost no new immigration thereafter.

An additional approximate 2, foreign born California residents also become U. California became a state in with a population of about 90, Between and , about 5 million Germans migrated to the United States, peaking between and when a million Germans settled primarily in the Midwest.

Between and , 3. Before most Irish immigrants were Protestants. After , Irish Catholics began arriving in large numbers, largely driven by the Great Famine.

After larger steam-powered oceangoing ships replaced sailing ships, which resulted in lower fares and greater immigrant mobility.

In addition, the expansion of a railroad system in Europe made it easier for people to reach oceanic ports to board ships.

Meanwhile, farming improvements in Southern Europe and the Russian Empire created surplus labor. Young people between the ages of 15 to 30 were predominant among newcomers.

This wave of migration, constituting the third episode in the history of U. Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Poles, and others speaking Slavic languages made up the bulk of this migration.

Each group evinced a distinctive migration pattern in terms of the gender balance within the migratory pool, the permanence of their migration, their literacy rates, the balance between adults and children, and the like.

But they shared one overarching characteristic: Their urban destinations, numbers, and perhaps an antipathy towards foreigners, led to the emergence of a second wave of organized xenophobia.

By the s, many Americans, particularly from the ranks of the well-off, white, and native-born, considered immigration to pose a serious danger to the nation's health and security.

In a group formed the Immigration Restriction League, and it, along with other similarly inclined organizations, began to press Congress for severe curtailment of foreign immigration.

It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to American values and controlled by the Pope in Rome.

Active mainly from —56, it strove to curb immigration and naturalization , though its efforts met with little success. There were few prominent leaders, and the largely middle-class and Protestant membership fragmented over the issue of slavery , most often joining the Republican Party by the time of the presidential election.

European immigrants joined the Union Army in large numbers, including , born in Germany and , born in Ireland. Between and , about , French Canadians left Quebec in order to immigrate to the United States and settle, mainly in New England.

Considering the fact that the population of Quebec was only , in , this was a massive exodus. A large portion of them have ancestors who emigrated from French Canada , since immigration from France was low throughout the history of the United States.

During the same period almost 4 million other Canadians immigrated to the U. Shortly after the U. And the networks last week were optimistic.

Despite all the requiems and. Agency ob- servers, although not going as far as Emil Mogul's suggestion that "night- time radio should be abandoned as we know it today, with a skeleton op- eration maintaining public service iprograroing.

They claimed that stations still don't like the idea of selling themselves so inexpensively as affiliates. In the face of dollar signs and dis- senters, network radio salesmen are still in an optimistic mood.

Their argument is that what they have given up in the way of programing they have sotten,vhack, in clearances: Station clearance is no longer con- sidered a problem, they stressed, as the schedule have been drawn up with the approval and cooperation of the affiliates, who have in turn prom- ised maximum clearance.

So many have written us off, and in many cases for good reasons. If we are to survive, the pitch must be made, and heard—now.

NBC also stated that it had been in the black since March, , would be for the year as a whole and into the first quarter of at least — with a big year expected.

CBS thus becomes the last to make the switch from old-time programing. Anl advertiser spending tv and magazine money may only be getting weekly] exposure.

For the same money, on less, we can saturate the nation. A third plus," he continued, "is added] reach.

We can take any kind of a tv! And, finally, network radi'j can help an advertiser force distri-j bution, even in soft goods.

The local stores, in turn, will have to have large supply of the sponsor's item stock. Pauley left ABC v. Rafael, national program director.

Also, the network reaches 1 1 irgest audiences throughout the T eek. Selectivity — NBC reaches a Wvy number of "key group" custo- lers especially the age group ith the highest market value.

C, puts 01 daily hour show sans cameraman, floor managers, production assistants. Van Horn, a jack-of-all-trades by nature, has put the octupus to shame.

Control room aside, he is the only person involved in putting on the Bob Gordon Show, which is aired from 9- 10 a.

And — oh, yes — he's prop manager at the station. The fact that the American labor movement hasn't protested is one of the unanswered questions of the time.

The production details of this daily program call for two live cameras, a "birthday board" with motor-driven crawl for salutes to kids, live appear- ances by the m.

Because of the programing sched- ule, there are no cameramen, floor men or production types available to get live portions of the show on the air.

Since he is an experienced hand at finding creative and imaginative an- swers for using sets and scenery eco- nomically, Van Horn's set-up for pro- ducing the Bob Gordon Show was not just luck.

Here's how he works: Each morn- ing Van Horn pre-sets his own scen- ery, lights and sound. He also pre- sets both cameras — one on himself and the other on the birthday crawl.

Before he goes on the air, he provides the audio and video operators in th? To cue himself, Van Horn rigged up a clock which he sets up under one of the camera lenses and switches on his own mike for his audio cues.

In the beginning of the one-man operation, naturally, there were rough spots. But today, the station reports, the program runs as smoothly as it would with a full crew.

As a matter of fact, Van Horn's success is so highly regarded that the WSJS-TV program manager is now using the one-man technique on his daily morning news program 7: This season, Burlington Hosiery, flushed with success over its first tv try, took the tv route with a gigantic, cut-in plan involving seven shows and three networks.

A; thur, embraces dealers in moi than cities. Literally "mountains" of pape work were involved before the hua and first large scale project of th kind, could be effected.

The plan ei compasses six night net shows: That the jumbo iroject, which was put into effect tarly in September, is producing vhat the advertiser went after can be ummed up in the comment by Bur- ington Hosiery's advertising and pro- notion director, Nathan S.

As it stands now, each of the oordinated Support Stocking dealers s identified during each of the seven let shows at the cut-in portion of the josiery commercial.

I The commereials — some taped, oth- ,rs filmed — are the same in all the rmrkets. Which is the Jurlington Support Stocking? Against musical, tap dance background, an ttractive woman, legs clad in nylon jiose, defies the viewer to guess which 3g is adorned with the support stock- jng.

The commercial sells the idea ihat support hose do not need to be Jiss attractive than sheer hosiery. It jlso points out the firm lift and sup- tort of the functional hose, and, con- jistently emphasizes the name Bur- lington Support Stocking.

The dealer jut-in breaks in at the close of the jommercial. Then, when viewer interest is at its peak, the local station cut-in tells her where, in her own locale, she can purchase the Burlington product.

It is the same commercial used in Burlington's first tv try last spring. At that time, and strictly on a test basis, Burlington Hosiery bought tv spots in five markets: Boston, Cin- cinnati, St.

An eight- week campaign, it ran from Febru- ary to April. Six to 10 spots a week were used, minutes and 20's.

It was this first cam- paign which triggered the huge ad- vertising program now in effect, a plan which despite its immensity, works smoothly. The cost of this unique cut-in?

NBC, on the other hand, has assumed all the necessary trans- actions, billings, etc. Arthur left and Burlington Hosiery advertising and promotion director, Nathan S.

Lanning, handing over a small portion of the paper work involved In massive cut-in arrangements, to W. Taped commercials start with once- over-lightly make-up job.

He's buying 30 counties but needs to reacb only half of one I v is being called on to perform a small miracle in New York this week as a Democratic campaigner for office bucks an established Republican stronghold.

He is Phil E. Whether this "seasonal" product can be sold to a splinter audience re- mains to be seen — tomorrow.

Gilbert is using the facilities of WNEW-TV, New York, which reaches some 30 counties, to get his message across to families in his home district — rough- ly, one half of one county.

Thus Gilbert is paying a premium price in advertising to ensconce himself in office. Because he's this far behind before the start of the Please turn to page 48 38 SPO.

Gilbert himself is former announcer, a tv plus. He's young, energetic, is tv's only local candidate. He uses costly despite 'waste' coverage because of its impact.

It has revealed its step-by-std approaches to an upgrading of co] claims and product presentation. Thr basic pursuit, says Frank White, i volves "just plain old-fashioned ho esty Good taste and integrity "ca not be established by a board of - rectors," but thev can be encouragi and developed How is McCann doing this?

Fii of all, by setting up the review groi in which each of more than p sons "has a personal sense of pa ticipation.

A major hurdle was surmounted when they arrived at a definition of terms concerning validation — the substantiation of product claims and product presentation.

This is why all claims are reviewed by each of the agency's three plans boards as well as by attorneys. The legal and the creative groups are working well together despite initial creative "apprehension that the cold hand of the law would inevitably slow up the fingers on the typewriters and crayons on the drawing boards.

They "as- sume responsibility for obtaining, in- terpreting, and passing on to our ad- vertising professional people all in- formation in connection with legisla- tion, rulings or other pertinent data relating to the ethical area of our operations," explains White.

The agency has taken further re- sponsibility in checking into the char- acter and reputation of scientists and consultants who contribute to the ma- terial which is used in product claims.

It gets "basic information concerning the identity and professional standing of all scientific professionals" who participate in the advertising pro- gram, whether they're hired by the client or the agency.

Set up a review group Set up a reviewing group of more than agency persons S to study electronics and other media to "determine what 1 revisions, if any, should be made in standard practices.

M-E's con- m H elusions: The agency has primary responsibility for validation 1 of any technique used in connection with demonstration m B and for visualization of the products which it advertises.

Validation material is reviewed by three McCann plans B boards, attorneys, and the ethics group. Last has sparked B check into "character and reputation" of scientists, consult- g ants who contribute to validation.

A leading asphalt manufacturer, Tr! Here s how it happened: More con- sumer-slant e. This year's campaign has shown an even greater trend toward con- sumer away from all-out institutional eell — a strong indication that Tri- State plans to step up its tv cam- paigns in the near future.

As ad manager Witten put it: The same applies to other people in the area. When a new business, a new school opens or a private citizen wants to put in a driveway, they think of Tri- State because they've seen our com- mercials.

A quiet but, nonetheless, signifi- cant trend is underway, according to Ziv-UA. See sponsor, 14 February , p. But today there's big news in the augmented role na- I tional advertisers are playing in cer- tain shows.

What kinds of national sponsors use syndication? They're the same types which use network television. In some cases, in fact, specific brands divide up their tv program budget be- I tween network shows and syndicated I shows.

These categories of national I sponsors are now using syndication: I tobacco, drugs, foods, automotives, I beers, soft drinks, cosmetics, and per- sonal services.

These 15 national sponsors are currently using Ziv-UA syndicated shows: American Tobacco, Pet Milk. Carling's, and Household Finance. What makes the list impressive is that it's the current client list of just one syndicator.

The constant increase of national sponsors has been the key weight shifting the balance in syndication from a station-supported to a sponsor- supported medium.

In some shows the sponsor major- ity is even higher, according to the Ziv-UA survey. In the past, the sponsor share has often been much lower.

Even highly successful Sea Hunt, now in its fourth year in syndication, went on the air in "with virtually no national advertisers. A roll call of regional advertisers now using the same syndicator's shows includes these 20 companies: Standard Oil of California, Kroger Co.

Ziv-UA has probably the largest client list of any syndicator in the business, and it has produced more programs for syndication season af- ter season than any of its rivals.

While other important syndicators endeavor to bring out two, three, or four new productions for syndication each year, Ziv-UA says that it has kept up with its announced policy of maintaining an average of six new productions available every year.

Sea Hunt, now in its fourth year of pro- duction, and Lock-Up, in its second. Two of the six shows, Case of the Dangerous Robin and This Man Daw- son, appeared on the tv scene for the first time in the last 12 months.

An- other new production, Tombstone Territory, consisted of new episodes of a program concept which proved itself successful on a prior ABC TV run.

Ziv-UA's sixth entry for I, Miami Undercover, is currently in production on location and started sales within the past two weeks.

Ziv-UA released Miami Undercover at this time partly because it believes that a ratings trend favoring suspense shows is now happening.

Miami Undercover, one of five tv properties contributed to Ziv- UA by the United Artists side of the family, is the first of such shows to be released since the Ziv-UA com- bine was formed.

Miami Under ccver is sold in 22 markets, including Buffalo, Miami, Cclumbus. Houston, Denver, Atlanta, and Los Angeles.

Returning again to national spon- sors and their increased use of syn- dication, the most interesting ques- tions that arise are why they use syn- dicated programing at all and how, once in syndication, they use it.

The buying habits of national spon- sors vary. Chicken-hearted juvenile delinquents arc microscoped by KOTV. This collective community commentary is a sampling of work in progress on the local Corin- thian television front, a variety of riches folks don't have to get up at five in the morning to sec.

The programs are set for evening viewing in time made available every third week by enlightened Face the Nation scheduling on the part of CBS. Each Corinthian station is mining this prime- time nugget in its own way.

Local staffs, con- fronted with the stimulus of a programming opportunity in evening time surrounded by net- work competition, arc responding creatively.

In- stead of a canned package designed largely to keep one half-hour from rubbing against an- other, we have exciting explorations of com- munity life, well-budgeted, lovingly planned, carefully produced, and interesting to area audiences.

They may even be interesting to advertisers but, sponsored or not, they'll be presented with pride and confidence as local productions mirroring local conditions, in keeping with the Corinthian group's emphasis on individual programming.

Stations have the option to delay them. CBS has assembled a potpourri of human interest, information and guest spots. CBS still retains a strip of a.

On weekends are Edward R. Murrow and Mitch Miller. Drama was kept on the schedule "by request of the affiliates. In the sports depart- ment, an old Yankee double-play com- bination has taken over.

Phil Rizzuto retains his evening show with Pat Summerall of the N. Football Giants during the current season and Gerry Coleman is spotted throughout the weekend.

Arkedis said that there is "no clearance problem. Pauley, vice president in charge of the network, are declaring that "for the first time in years, net- work radio is bullish.

Pauley said that advertisers should be aware of Flair — a daily 55 minutes of five-minute feature seg- ments starring well-known personali- ties — by the end of the first quarter and should be getting on the band- wagon.

As of now, he said, it has the highest clearance of any sustaining show in network history. The 11 daily Flair segments can be spotted at any time between p.

All segments not sold on the network are available for local sale on a two-week recapturable basis. We are selling minutes, 30's, alternate minutes and 30's, and full programs.

The medi- um can be effective for any national advertiser of every budget range we have Cadillacs and Christmas tree or- naments on ABC.

Pauley, are the fact that media departments have been brought up on tv. And the advertisers' clearance traumas.

We don't envision these problems any more. Erwin, assistant and spokesman for Robert Hurleigh, "lies in the fact that its en- tire operation is geared to comple- menting rather than infringing upon the affiliates' local images.

Success in clearing sched- ules is due," Erwin declared, "to serving the stations rather than tell- ing them what to do. Stations recip- rocate by going all out to accommo- date our commercials.

Why is there often a big spread in commercial producers' Cordon Kolvenbach, commercial pro- r f.

For example, a new client to a film company could be a reason for either Differences in understand- ing betuven agency and producers one factor a low or high bid: Conversely, an old client may occasion a low or a high bid de- termined by past experience working w ith the same account.

Overhead is a large item. On the surface, it might seem to be a factor in raising bids. However, it could also cause low bids. The film com- pany with a large permanent staff and expensive real estate has to have vol- ume to stay in business.

Never- theless he is in business to make a profit, and somewhere else bids will be higher than normal when "the trafTi w ill bear. To a large extent film companies start even — equipment, crew costs, film stock, basics are similar.

Some, by perhaps an unwritten business phi- losophy, are more conservative or lib- eral and bid higher or lower as a rule rather than the exception.

The de- gree of detail of the storyboards. If the film producer has a differ- ent conception of the sets required, the time allotted for shooting, the crew provided, or any of the areas of variable costs, there is bound to be a large variance in bids.

The remedy seems obvious — better understanding and communication. This should be simple for people whose livelihood depends on lucid communication.

Certainly if this problem exists, strides can be made toward better understanding by perhaps a less frenzied pace, more detailed instructions, and more mu- tual trust and confidence between film producers and their clients.

Cera Id Auerbach, president, Gerald Productions. Vetr York All production elements, which re- late to cost are reasonably equal: That's why it is so inter- esting to realize that there is a wide range in the prices bid by several producers on the same production.

When we are asked to bid on a pro- duction, we do so on the basis of two areas: Gener- ally, we estimate for far more prep- aration, production, and post-produc- tion time — even at the risk of not being competitive in price to other producers.

It is our feeling that the quality of the final production is very closely related to the amount of plan- ning, insight, and understanding of the client's needs.

The individual producer's interpretation of the story- board as well as his own approach in terms of production values are all- important aspects in cost estimating.

Pre-bid discussion of client require- ments are a must, since it is unfair to the producer not to have the client indicate his standards and production values.

By underestimating the costs in- volved, in order to place the lowest bid, we run the risk of insufficient preparation, planning and p re-shoot - ing time and thus of doing an un- satisfactory job.

While low bids may result in securing jobs, poor produc- tions based upon the inevitable result of underestimating, are not conducive to gathering future business.

Our phi- losophy is to do a job which will bring credit to all and thus insure fu- ture business coming back to us. Sometimes, not being sufficiently aware of the creative contribution and only pay- ing attention to the stark figures on the bottom of the estimate, the client Some producers estimate too tightly, resulting in poor work is immediately attracted to the low- est bid.

The consequent sacrifice of quality in order to achieve this low- bid will not show up until the pro- duction is finished.

The old saw of "you get what you pay for" is re- membered too late. How then to solve the dilemma of evaluating a bid by more than the total figure on the bottom?

Compar- ing previous work with that of other bidders is one answer, but the most important factor is for the client to feel there is an understanding of what he wants.

Only then profes- sional ability and quality of work can be attained. For instance, three large East Coast producers will bid competitively on a Variation not that extreme when producers are relatively same size, caliber particular script and storyboard as will three smaller companies.

Need- less to say, there will be a greater spread in bids between the large and small houses. However, this does not necessarily indicate that a low bid from a small company means an in- ferior or ineffective end product.

Creative and experienced talent are to be found in both large and small production firms. There are instances where competi- tive bids will vary, but the reasons for these variations can be attributed to both agency and film producer.

The advertising agency can be re- sponsible for competitive bid varia- tions if the specific job is not spelled out completely to the company repre- sentative bidding.

His tv campaign of one- minute announcements hits hard on a single theme in each ''commercial" and attempts to focus on his person- ality. For one thing, as the only local candidate thus exposed he could get a unique position in the spotlight.

Gil- bert's ad strategists recommended tv as an unusual measures — in this in- stance—to gain maximum impact un- der highly adverse conditions.

They're foregoing maximum efficiency in the hope the desired results will be achieved. The first minute announcement had an Arbitron of 2.

The Gilbert work- ers are hopeful but less than opti- mistic. They hope there's a shifting public opinion which can be pro. But they know the odds — despite his tv appearances- are massive.

Because McCann is playing for keeps, the agency named a top admin- istrative officer to shepherd the pro- gram to success.

Frank White super- vises the ethical program as a "con- tinuing primary responsibility. Frank White brings to this respon- sibility impressive experience in pub- lishing, broadcast, advertising, and business administration.

He's been with McCann-Erickson since The problems and solutions he's dealing with in the ethical program of McCann are among those which have commanded his attention with such professional groups as the Ad- vertising Council and Better Business Bureau of New York, for which he serves as a director, and the Ameri- can Association of Advertising Agen- cies, the Brand Xames Foundation and the National Association of Broadcasters, where he previously served as a director.

His work with these groups and at McCann is predicated on this pre- cept: They know the basic difference be- tween right and wrong. L On the production house side of ' the fence are several types of bids.

There are times when a film pro- ducer's bid will vary due to his pre- vious familiarization with the client's product and mode of operations.

The con- Changing producer often negates close working relationship tinuity of ideas is a cornerstone in mutual understanding. If we accept that tv commercial production is in j every sense part of the communica- jtions process, then it follows that the practice of bidding, which greatly in- hibits continuity, is the nemesis of effective communications.

It is highly improbable that a spon- sor exists today who, in the interests of effective advertising and economy, seeks a new advertising agency from week -to -week or month -to -month.

Such a practice would hardly be eco- nomical, much less result in effective advertising. Yet, the film producer is asked to perform like the bride, al- though he is only a bridesmaid!

So, we producers find ourselves in much the same position of the hypo- thetical ad agency serving a roster of itinerant clients.

If, therefore, great differences in bids do sometimes ex- ist, it should be understandable. These differences are not born of producer avarice or munificence.

With most agency producers them- selves astute estimators of cost, pro- ducer greed is inconceivable, and I don't think we'd find many producers motivated by sheer generosity.

In order to stay in business, the producer must have a constantly mar- ketable commodity — creativeness, manual skill, experience, materials, facilities, etc.

Therefore, when com- petition must be met, he will make adjustments in the marketable com- modity or in the way it is marketed.

The more severe the adjustment, the poorer the end product. Too many severe adjustments would literally drive the producer out of business. Then, agencies would be faced with a real threat— a smaller and stagnating pool of bidders, and tv commercials that reflected the situation.

All things being equal, differences in bids will arise because of varying interpretations of the same story- board.

When these interpretations are wide apart, the bids will be, too. Much of this may be attributed to the lack of continuity which the bidding system breeds.

When a producer and an agency establish a close working relationship, a rapport inevitably re- sults and the agency gets precisely what it's looking for.

Even in that halcyon day when bid- ding is no more and producers thrive ulcer-free, the same job rarely will be equal in cost when produced at two different studios.

That is, costs will differ so long as human beings con- tinue to think and act differently. But, in that day, the great disparity in prices will cease and then, only then, will creativity truly blossom — and at bargain prices.

When American Tobacco first entered syn- dication with another syndicator its chief motive was apparently to ob- tain extra tv circulation for Lucky Strike.

When its initial list of mar- kets included a few in which it couldn't clear good time, it simply substituted other markets on the the- ory that people smoke everywhere.

So far it has Reynolds' syndication strat- egy is entirely different from the two brands mentioned above. Reynolds buys directly from stations which have acceptable syndicated shows on the air and earning satisfactory rat- ings.

Reynolds' policy is to seek out good cost efficiency in time periods which provide nighttime platforms for its second commercials.

The names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor and business managers are: Bernard PI at t. McMillin, New York, N.

Stockholders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of stock: D C; Nor- man Reed, Washington. The known bondholders, mortgagees, and olher security holders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: Paragraphs 2 and 3 include, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting: Tills information is required by the act of.

Vice President Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of September, Laura Oken Paperman My commission expires March First — it's a perfect illustration of what a great campaign can do.

Second — it proves that the advertiser who believes in advertising ends up a power in his industry. So — how does this concern a broadcaster?

So — it works the same way here. Every station that sells advertising — and has equal faith in buying it as well — always winds up with a bigger share of spot in its market.

And don't eliminate the "tattoo". But there's a special segment it reaches best. That's our sales "tattoo" — substantiated by every independent survey made.

Schedules for Colgate Dental Cream begin this month in a number of markets. Prime minutes and chainbreak placements run until the end of the year.

Campaign on its appliances starts this month in reportedly top markets. Day and night minutes will be scheduled, moderate frequencies. Going into about 25 markets this month with schedules for Deep Magic.

Short runs of night minutes will be used in November and December. Campaign in about 25 markets begins this month on its shirts.

Schedules will run up until Christmas, day and late night minutes. Three-week runs are being set with day and fringe night minutes primarily, six to 12 per week per market.

Kicking off the Christmas campaign for its toy guns in over 50 markets this month. Minutes, three- to five-minute spots per week per market, are being scheduled.

Traffic and day minutes will be scheduled for 12 weeks. North American Van Lines, Inc. Placing sched- ules to start mid-November to promote its household goods freight service.

Buys are for 6 weeks using minute segments. Lining up one-week sched- ules in December in the top markets. Placements are five-minute news casts.

And it's growing larger every day. And its lead has grown consistently year after year. You can't think of one without the other.

That's why more national advertisers place more business on WLIB than on any other station programming to this vital mar- ket—they know that WLIB has proved itself far and away the most effective buy.

FCC monthly reports, commercial stations. TyM August August 8 months 8 months Home , , 5,, 4,, Auto , , 3,, 3,, Total 1,, , 9,, 7,, Source: Thete flgnrti are of C.

Note that the listening level shows little or no change through most of year. Slight fall-off in summer is compensated somewhat by out-of-home listening.

Editing was done on the spot and combined with other portions of the commercial. And each complete commercial was "in the can" while the whole crew was still on location.

For hard sell commercials or big budget specials, tape cuts production costs to the bone, eliminates fluffs, makes schedules more flexible and, most importantly, gives the production a "live" look.

Its uses are limited only by your imagination. T 3M Co. In- clude 25c in coin for eoch copy ond moil to: What s happening in U. But a time bomb for all of broad- casting could be hidden in this particular haystack.

The motion picture exhibitors would be almost certain to appeal any such authorization to the courts. One of their major points would be that Paramount case dictate against ownership of theatres, the means for exhibition, by producers of motion pictures.

This is a point which has long been a threat to television and specifically to the networks. Congressional committees, the Department of Justice and the FCC have all been told on occa- sion that network ownership of stations violates this precedent.

There has been no disposition toward action in any of these quarters. However, this does not "insulate" the practice from attack by private parties.

If the appeal is made on these grounds, it would not only endanger a pay-tv grant to RKO, but would also put their tv sta- tion licenses in jeopardy.

Beyond that, it would threaten the tv station licenses of the net- works, NTA, and anybody else who produces and distributes programs.

Which is not to say that the courts would rule that the motion picture precedent applies in the tv field. The courts would determine the question solely on the facts in the tv in- dustry as they might or might not square with the motion picture industry situation.

The important point here is that the government agencies have not, at least not yet, de- cided to take the question to the courts.

For this reason no ruling has yet been made. But the theatre owners are at perfect liberty to initiate a court determination of the ques- tion.

The exhibitors would be more than willing to turn tv upside down. They cite the need of the nation for free tv when they oppose pay tv, but they have never failed to do their best against free tv otherwise.

At one time they were cited for violation of antitrust laws in bring- ing pressure to bear against film studios aimed at preventing release of films to free tv.

Barrett Prettyman, head of the President's Conference on Administrative procedure, has suggested that perhaps regulatory agencies might do with less of a judicial atmosphere rather than more of the same.

The study of the regulatory agencies had its root in the Harris probe and other Congres- sional bows in this direction.

The report on the study, containing official recommendations, is expected to arrive on President Eisenhower's desk on 21 November. Meanwhile, Prettyman said that more infor- mal relations between the agencies and the industries they regulate speed up agen- cy work "in certain areas.

In the meantime, old FCC pronouncements on the subject are completely invalid. Stations have only the law which forbids failure to reveal sponsorship, plus the law passed by Con- gress in the past session, to guide them.

Ford said, however, that all need not be chaos. He told stations, in effect, to interpret the new law with "common sense," and promised the FCC would be "reasonably lenient in the interim" before new regulations can be adopted.

If wavering pace of national spot film programing suddenly ends and there's a major comeback, you can credit a lot of it to Shulton Wesley Associates.

Shulton cut its network ties and became a national spot programer last year for one sim- ple reason: Since switching its programs budget from network to national spot film Shulton enjoyed a 30 to 40 per cent increase in counter and shelf space, thanks to station help.

This year Shulton will use 94 stations for five weeks between Thanksgiving and Christmas for Shulton Holiday Playhouse, actually a group of five former pilot films: Trade estimates of a half-million dollar cost are: Charles Amory of Wesley has been visiting stations all over the country clearing time, preferably on Friday nights before weekly paychecks are spent; he's avoiding Saturday evening slots where possible, on the theory the family's money is already committed for the week by then.

Shulton owns the five half-hour films outright; last year it owned Race For Space out- right and allowed stations to re-run it in exchange for carrying extra Shulton spots; inci- dentally, next year Shulton will use six full hour specials.

By last week Shulton had already cleared all its 94 markets except Buffalo, Columbus, 0. Before it turned to its own program in spot Shulton was a hefty spender in seasonal net- work specials.

There's a packet of bad news for tv distributors of feature films if a report concerning ABC TV late night programing turns out to be true.

The report is this: If carried into effect, the plan could freeze feature films out of late night spots on ABC affiliates, remove many sales prospects from the feature film distributors' list and, what's more, create local feature film surpluses.

Station business of feature film specials to toy and game advertisers is in a pre- Christmas boom. The beer advertiser is selling off markets it doesn't want of Third Man, a series it bought on a national spot basis except New York from NTA.

The pilot for Jackpot Golf has already been made; 26 half -hour episodes will be shot on tape and can be transferred to film.

An old complaint against the networks is making the rounds again: In such cases the network's syndication division takes its usual distribution fee of ap- proximately 40 per cent without making a production investment.

Furthermore, some new expressions of discontent have been voiced against what produc- ers call the excessive distribution commission in international syndication, especially where the distributor only makes a few cable phone calls and ends up with the biggest share of receipts.

The latest gimmick of one feature film distributor is a 25 per cent surcharge on movie packages in exchange for a promise to deliver spot business from a na- tional advertiser equal to the price of the package.

Here's how it works: So far two midwest stations and one eastern outlet are involved. Hour-long specials with a documentary flair is one program area which stations can profitably enter as producers and syndicators.

Additionally, WBKB is hoping to sell several subsequent runs to local sponsors and isn't overlooking the possibility of theatrical bookings.

Those new animated shows have been doing well for themselves in ratings. MPO is one of the few commercials producers to seek a solution to financing problems in the sale of stock rather than in a merger.

Although MPO's industrials business is climbing faster than its commercials, the latter still accounted for 85 per cent of its gross business in the last fiscal year.

There were rumblings of another accent-on-youth executive checkerboard play within Merle Jones' CBS domain when he returned from his foreign climes trip.

The report has it this way: Walt's ; Shakespeare, ; Bryant, If you hear the cosmetic 6eld referred to as the "lunatic fringe," don't be too quick to respond with a sardonic chuckle.

Relations between one of the biggest users of tv and its agencies have become somewhat awxy because the president of the client company has made it a policy: After the breakup of a meeting she was approached with this greeting: ABC TV says it can't understand why all the tumult about its testing of the second commercial and four commercial-breaks concept in daytime when CBS TV has allowed the practice: American Home was allowed to do it there but the client agreed to go along with CBS' change of policy which went into effect on 15 September.

Between , and , Scotch-Irish migrated to America in the 18th century. Areas where people reported ' American ' ancestry were the places where, historically, northern English, Scottish and Scotch-Irish Protestants settled: They were heavily Presbyterian, and largely self-sufficient.

The Scotch-Irish arrived in large numbers during the early 18th century and they often preferred to settle in the back country and the frontier from Pennsylvania to Georgia, where they mingled with second generation and later English settlers.

They enjoyed the very cheap land and independence from established governments common to frontier settlements.

Often, the main port of entry for these immigrants was Philadelphia, after which they or, in many cases, their descendants migrated west and south.

The mostly agricultural Southern English colonies initially had very high death rates for new settlers due to malaria , yellow fever , and other diseases as well as skirmishes with Native Americans.

Despite this, a steady flow of new settlers, mostly from Central England and the London area, kept up population growth. Initially, the large plantations were mostly owned by friends mostly minor aristocrats of the British-appointed governors.

A group of Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlanders created a settlement at Cape Fear in North Carolina, which remained culturally distinct until the midth century, at which point it was swallowed up by the dominant English-origin culture.

After their terms of indentures expired, most of the indentures settled small farms on the frontier. After , the initial areas of settlement had been largely cleared of Native Americans by major outbreaks of measles , smallpox , and bubonic plague beginning decades before the settlers began arriving in large numbers.

The leading killer was smallpox, which arrived in the New World around — While the thirteen colonies differentiated in how they were settled and by whom, they had many commonalities.

Nearly all were settled and financed by privately organized British settlers or families using free enterprise without any significant English Royal or Parliamentary government support or input.

Nearly all commercial activity was run in small, privately owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England, which was essential since they were often cash poor.

Most settlements were nearly independent of British trade since they grew or made nearly everything they needed; the average cost of imports per household was 5—15 pounds per year.

Most settlements were created by complete family groups with several generations often present. After , as the Industrial Revolution progressed, more of the population started to move to cities, much like what had happened in Britain.

Initially, the Dutch and German Americans primarily spoke dialects brought over from Europe, while English was the main trade language.

Governments and laws primarily copied the English. The only major British institution to be abandoned was the aristocracy , noted by nearly universal absence.

The settlers generally established their own popularly elected governments and courts on as many levels as they could and were nearly all, within a few years, self-governing, self-supporting, and self-replicating.

This self-ruling pattern became so ingrained that almost all new settlements would have their own government up and running shortly after arrival for the next years.

Even here the immigrants came mostly from England and Scotland with the exception of a large Germanic contingent to Pennsylvania. Elsewhere internal American migration from other colonies provided nearly all of the settlers for each new colony or state.

Over half of all new British immigrants in the South initially arrived as indentured servants. In addition, about 60, British convicts were transported to the British colonies in the 18th century.

Most of these so-called convicts were guilty of being very poor and out of work. Ironically, these "convicts" are often the only immigrants with nearly complete immigration records as other immigrants typically showed up with few or no records.

The settlers were forced to leave temporarily for 12 years — by the Pueblo Revolt before returning. Spanish Texas lasted from to when Texas was governed as a colony which was separate from New Spain.

In Spanish settlers founded Los Angeles. At the time they joined the U. New Mexico had 47, Spanish settlers in Arizona was only thinly settled.

However, not all these settlers were of European descent. As in the rest of the American colonies, new settlements were based on the casta system, and although all could speak Spanish, it was really a melting pot of whites, Natives, and mestizos.

The city of Detroit was the third largest settlement in New France. New Orleans expanded when several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia now Nova Scotia , Canada made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion, settling largely in the Southwest Louisiana region now called Acadiana.

Their descendants are now called Cajun and still dominate the coastal areas. The following were the countries of origin for new arrivals to the United States before The ancestry of the 3.

The Irish in the census were mostly Scotch-Irish. The French were primarily Huguenots. The Native American population inside territorial U.

The population reflected the loss of approximately 46, Loyalists , or "Tories", who immigrated to Canada at the end of the American Revolution, 10, who went to England and 6, to the Caribbean.

The USA of recorded 3. Of the total white population of just under 3. The number of Scots was ,; Irish and Scot-Irish , Many were descendants of English Catholics settlers in the 17th century.

The rest were Irish, German and some Acadians who remained. In this era the population roughly doubled mostly due to natural increase every 23 years.

Relentless population expansion pushed the U. Most immigrants came long distances to settle in the U. However, many Irish left Canada for the U.

French Canadians who came down from Quebec after and the Mexicans who came north after found it easier to move back and forth.

There was relatively little immigration from to ; while there was significant emigration from the U. Large scale immigration resumed in the s from Britain, Ireland, Germany, and other parts of Central Europe as well as Scandinavia.

Most were attracted by the cheap farmland. Some were artisans and skilled factory workers attracted by the first stage of industrialization.

The Irish Catholics were primarily unskilled workers who built a majority of the canals and railroads, settling in urban areas. Many Irish went to the emerging textile mill towns of the Northeast, while others became longshoremen in the growing Atlantic and Gulf port cities.

Half the Germans headed to farms, especially in the Midwest with some to Texas , while the other half became craftsmen in urban areas.

Nativism took the form of political anti-Catholicism directed mostly at the Irish as well as Germans. It became important briefly in the mids in the guise of the Know Nothing party.

During the Civil War, ethnic communities supported the war and produced large numbers of soldiers on both sides.

Riots broke out in New York City and other Irish and German strongholds in when a draft was instituted, particularly in light of the provision exempting those who could afford payment.

Based on available records, immigration totaled 8, in , with immigration totals gradually increasing to 23, by the year ; for the s decade immigration more than doubled to , Between and , immigration more than quadrupled to a total of , These included about , Irish, starting to emigrate in large numbers following Britain's easing of travel restrictions, and about , Germans, 76, British, and 46, French, constituting the next largest immigrant groups of the decade.

Between and , immigration nearly tripled again, totaling 1,, immigrants, including at least , Irish, , Germans, , British, and 77, French.

The Irish, driven by the Potato Famine — , emigrated directly from their homeland to escape poverty and death. The failed revolutions of brought many intellectuals and activists to exile in the U.

Bad times and poor conditions in Europe drove people out, while land, relatives, freedom, opportunity, and jobs in the US lured them in.

Starting in , some federal records, including ship passenger lists, were kept for immigration purposes, and a gradual increase in immigration was recorded; more complete immigration records provide data on immigration after Though conducted since , the census of was the first in which place of birth was asked specifically.

The foreign-born population in the U. By , most of the immigrants who arrived before the American Revolution had died, and there had been almost no new immigration thereafter.

An additional approximate 2, foreign born California residents also become U. California became a state in with a population of about 90, Between and , about 5 million Germans migrated to the United States, peaking between and when a million Germans settled primarily in the Midwest.

Between and , 3. Before most Irish immigrants were Protestants. After , Irish Catholics began arriving in large numbers, largely driven by the Great Famine.

After larger steam-powered oceangoing ships replaced sailing ships, which resulted in lower fares and greater immigrant mobility.

In addition, the expansion of a railroad system in Europe made it easier for people to reach oceanic ports to board ships. Meanwhile, farming improvements in Southern Europe and the Russian Empire created surplus labor.

Young people between the ages of 15 to 30 were predominant among newcomers. This wave of migration, constituting the third episode in the history of U.

Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Poles, and others speaking Slavic languages made up the bulk of this migration. Each group evinced a distinctive migration pattern in terms of the gender balance within the migratory pool, the permanence of their migration, their literacy rates, the balance between adults and children, and the like.

But they shared one overarching characteristic: Their urban destinations, numbers, and perhaps an antipathy towards foreigners, led to the emergence of a second wave of organized xenophobia.

Thus Gilbert is paying a premium price in advertising to ensconce himself in office. Because he's this far behind before the start of the Please turn to page 48 38 SPO.

Gilbert himself is former announcer, a tv plus. He's young, energetic, is tv's only local candidate.

He uses costly despite 'waste' coverage because of its impact. It has revealed its step-by-std approaches to an upgrading of co] claims and product presentation.

Thr basic pursuit, says Frank White, i volves "just plain old-fashioned ho esty Good taste and integrity "ca not be established by a board of - rectors," but thev can be encouragi and developed How is McCann doing this?

Fii of all, by setting up the review groi in which each of more than p sons "has a personal sense of pa ticipation. A major hurdle was surmounted when they arrived at a definition of terms concerning validation — the substantiation of product claims and product presentation.

This is why all claims are reviewed by each of the agency's three plans boards as well as by attorneys. The legal and the creative groups are working well together despite initial creative "apprehension that the cold hand of the law would inevitably slow up the fingers on the typewriters and crayons on the drawing boards.

They "as- sume responsibility for obtaining, in- terpreting, and passing on to our ad- vertising professional people all in- formation in connection with legisla- tion, rulings or other pertinent data relating to the ethical area of our operations," explains White.

The agency has taken further re- sponsibility in checking into the char- acter and reputation of scientists and consultants who contribute to the ma- terial which is used in product claims.

It gets "basic information concerning the identity and professional standing of all scientific professionals" who participate in the advertising pro- gram, whether they're hired by the client or the agency.

Set up a review group Set up a reviewing group of more than agency persons S to study electronics and other media to "determine what 1 revisions, if any, should be made in standard practices.

M-E's con- m H elusions: The agency has primary responsibility for validation 1 of any technique used in connection with demonstration m B and for visualization of the products which it advertises.

Validation material is reviewed by three McCann plans B boards, attorneys, and the ethics group. Last has sparked B check into "character and reputation" of scientists, consult- g ants who contribute to validation.

A leading asphalt manufacturer, Tr! Here s how it happened: More con- sumer-slant e. This year's campaign has shown an even greater trend toward con- sumer away from all-out institutional eell — a strong indication that Tri- State plans to step up its tv cam- paigns in the near future.

As ad manager Witten put it: The same applies to other people in the area. When a new business, a new school opens or a private citizen wants to put in a driveway, they think of Tri- State because they've seen our com- mercials.

A quiet but, nonetheless, signifi- cant trend is underway, according to Ziv-UA. See sponsor, 14 February , p.

But today there's big news in the augmented role na- I tional advertisers are playing in cer- tain shows.

What kinds of national sponsors use syndication? They're the same types which use network television.

In some cases, in fact, specific brands divide up their tv program budget be- I tween network shows and syndicated I shows.

These categories of national I sponsors are now using syndication: I tobacco, drugs, foods, automotives, I beers, soft drinks, cosmetics, and per- sonal services.

These 15 national sponsors are currently using Ziv-UA syndicated shows: American Tobacco, Pet Milk. Carling's, and Household Finance.

What makes the list impressive is that it's the current client list of just one syndicator. The constant increase of national sponsors has been the key weight shifting the balance in syndication from a station-supported to a sponsor- supported medium.

In some shows the sponsor major- ity is even higher, according to the Ziv-UA survey. In the past, the sponsor share has often been much lower.

Even highly successful Sea Hunt, now in its fourth year in syndication, went on the air in "with virtually no national advertisers. A roll call of regional advertisers now using the same syndicator's shows includes these 20 companies: Standard Oil of California, Kroger Co.

Ziv-UA has probably the largest client list of any syndicator in the business, and it has produced more programs for syndication season af- ter season than any of its rivals.

While other important syndicators endeavor to bring out two, three, or four new productions for syndication each year, Ziv-UA says that it has kept up with its announced policy of maintaining an average of six new productions available every year.

Sea Hunt, now in its fourth year of pro- duction, and Lock-Up, in its second. Two of the six shows, Case of the Dangerous Robin and This Man Daw- son, appeared on the tv scene for the first time in the last 12 months.

An- other new production, Tombstone Territory, consisted of new episodes of a program concept which proved itself successful on a prior ABC TV run.

Ziv-UA's sixth entry for I, Miami Undercover, is currently in production on location and started sales within the past two weeks.

Ziv-UA released Miami Undercover at this time partly because it believes that a ratings trend favoring suspense shows is now happening.

Miami Undercover, one of five tv properties contributed to Ziv- UA by the United Artists side of the family, is the first of such shows to be released since the Ziv-UA com- bine was formed.

Miami Under ccver is sold in 22 markets, including Buffalo, Miami, Cclumbus. Houston, Denver, Atlanta, and Los Angeles. Returning again to national spon- sors and their increased use of syn- dication, the most interesting ques- tions that arise are why they use syn- dicated programing at all and how, once in syndication, they use it.

The buying habits of national spon- sors vary. Chicken-hearted juvenile delinquents arc microscoped by KOTV. This collective community commentary is a sampling of work in progress on the local Corin- thian television front, a variety of riches folks don't have to get up at five in the morning to sec.

The programs are set for evening viewing in time made available every third week by enlightened Face the Nation scheduling on the part of CBS. Each Corinthian station is mining this prime- time nugget in its own way.

Local staffs, con- fronted with the stimulus of a programming opportunity in evening time surrounded by net- work competition, arc responding creatively.

In- stead of a canned package designed largely to keep one half-hour from rubbing against an- other, we have exciting explorations of com- munity life, well-budgeted, lovingly planned, carefully produced, and interesting to area audiences.

They may even be interesting to advertisers but, sponsored or not, they'll be presented with pride and confidence as local productions mirroring local conditions, in keeping with the Corinthian group's emphasis on individual programming.

Stations have the option to delay them. CBS has assembled a potpourri of human interest, information and guest spots. CBS still retains a strip of a.

On weekends are Edward R. Murrow and Mitch Miller. Drama was kept on the schedule "by request of the affiliates. In the sports depart- ment, an old Yankee double-play com- bination has taken over.

Phil Rizzuto retains his evening show with Pat Summerall of the N. Football Giants during the current season and Gerry Coleman is spotted throughout the weekend.

Arkedis said that there is "no clearance problem. Pauley, vice president in charge of the network, are declaring that "for the first time in years, net- work radio is bullish.

Pauley said that advertisers should be aware of Flair — a daily 55 minutes of five-minute feature seg- ments starring well-known personali- ties — by the end of the first quarter and should be getting on the band- wagon.

As of now, he said, it has the highest clearance of any sustaining show in network history. The 11 daily Flair segments can be spotted at any time between p.

All segments not sold on the network are available for local sale on a two-week recapturable basis. We are selling minutes, 30's, alternate minutes and 30's, and full programs.

The medi- um can be effective for any national advertiser of every budget range we have Cadillacs and Christmas tree or- naments on ABC.

Pauley, are the fact that media departments have been brought up on tv. And the advertisers' clearance traumas. We don't envision these problems any more.

Erwin, assistant and spokesman for Robert Hurleigh, "lies in the fact that its en- tire operation is geared to comple- menting rather than infringing upon the affiliates' local images.

Success in clearing sched- ules is due," Erwin declared, "to serving the stations rather than tell- ing them what to do.

Stations recip- rocate by going all out to accommo- date our commercials. Why is there often a big spread in commercial producers' Cordon Kolvenbach, commercial pro- r f.

For example, a new client to a film company could be a reason for either Differences in understand- ing betuven agency and producers one factor a low or high bid: Conversely, an old client may occasion a low or a high bid de- termined by past experience working w ith the same account.

Overhead is a large item. On the surface, it might seem to be a factor in raising bids. However, it could also cause low bids.

The film com- pany with a large permanent staff and expensive real estate has to have vol- ume to stay in business. Never- theless he is in business to make a profit, and somewhere else bids will be higher than normal when "the trafTi w ill bear.

To a large extent film companies start even — equipment, crew costs, film stock, basics are similar. Some, by perhaps an unwritten business phi- losophy, are more conservative or lib- eral and bid higher or lower as a rule rather than the exception.

The de- gree of detail of the storyboards. If the film producer has a differ- ent conception of the sets required, the time allotted for shooting, the crew provided, or any of the areas of variable costs, there is bound to be a large variance in bids.

The remedy seems obvious — better understanding and communication. This should be simple for people whose livelihood depends on lucid communication.

Certainly if this problem exists, strides can be made toward better understanding by perhaps a less frenzied pace, more detailed instructions, and more mu- tual trust and confidence between film producers and their clients.

Cera Id Auerbach, president, Gerald Productions. Vetr York All production elements, which re- late to cost are reasonably equal: That's why it is so inter- esting to realize that there is a wide range in the prices bid by several producers on the same production.

When we are asked to bid on a pro- duction, we do so on the basis of two areas: Gener- ally, we estimate for far more prep- aration, production, and post-produc- tion time — even at the risk of not being competitive in price to other producers.

It is our feeling that the quality of the final production is very closely related to the amount of plan- ning, insight, and understanding of the client's needs.

The individual producer's interpretation of the story- board as well as his own approach in terms of production values are all- important aspects in cost estimating.

Pre-bid discussion of client require- ments are a must, since it is unfair to the producer not to have the client indicate his standards and production values.

By underestimating the costs in- volved, in order to place the lowest bid, we run the risk of insufficient preparation, planning and p re-shoot - ing time and thus of doing an un- satisfactory job.

While low bids may result in securing jobs, poor produc- tions based upon the inevitable result of underestimating, are not conducive to gathering future business.

Our phi- losophy is to do a job which will bring credit to all and thus insure fu- ture business coming back to us. Sometimes, not being sufficiently aware of the creative contribution and only pay- ing attention to the stark figures on the bottom of the estimate, the client Some producers estimate too tightly, resulting in poor work is immediately attracted to the low- est bid.

The consequent sacrifice of quality in order to achieve this low- bid will not show up until the pro- duction is finished. The old saw of "you get what you pay for" is re- membered too late.

How then to solve the dilemma of evaluating a bid by more than the total figure on the bottom? Compar- ing previous work with that of other bidders is one answer, but the most important factor is for the client to feel there is an understanding of what he wants.

Only then profes- sional ability and quality of work can be attained. For instance, three large East Coast producers will bid competitively on a Variation not that extreme when producers are relatively same size, caliber particular script and storyboard as will three smaller companies.

Need- less to say, there will be a greater spread in bids between the large and small houses. However, this does not necessarily indicate that a low bid from a small company means an in- ferior or ineffective end product.

Creative and experienced talent are to be found in both large and small production firms. There are instances where competi- tive bids will vary, but the reasons for these variations can be attributed to both agency and film producer.

The advertising agency can be re- sponsible for competitive bid varia- tions if the specific job is not spelled out completely to the company repre- sentative bidding.

His tv campaign of one- minute announcements hits hard on a single theme in each ''commercial" and attempts to focus on his person- ality. For one thing, as the only local candidate thus exposed he could get a unique position in the spotlight.

Gil- bert's ad strategists recommended tv as an unusual measures — in this in- stance—to gain maximum impact un- der highly adverse conditions.

They're foregoing maximum efficiency in the hope the desired results will be achieved. The first minute announcement had an Arbitron of 2.

The Gilbert work- ers are hopeful but less than opti- mistic. They hope there's a shifting public opinion which can be pro.

But they know the odds — despite his tv appearances- are massive. Because McCann is playing for keeps, the agency named a top admin- istrative officer to shepherd the pro- gram to success.

Frank White super- vises the ethical program as a "con- tinuing primary responsibility. Frank White brings to this respon- sibility impressive experience in pub- lishing, broadcast, advertising, and business administration.

He's been with McCann-Erickson since The problems and solutions he's dealing with in the ethical program of McCann are among those which have commanded his attention with such professional groups as the Ad- vertising Council and Better Business Bureau of New York, for which he serves as a director, and the Ameri- can Association of Advertising Agen- cies, the Brand Xames Foundation and the National Association of Broadcasters, where he previously served as a director.

His work with these groups and at McCann is predicated on this pre- cept: They know the basic difference be- tween right and wrong.

L On the production house side of ' the fence are several types of bids. There are times when a film pro- ducer's bid will vary due to his pre- vious familiarization with the client's product and mode of operations.

The con- Changing producer often negates close working relationship tinuity of ideas is a cornerstone in mutual understanding. If we accept that tv commercial production is in j every sense part of the communica- jtions process, then it follows that the practice of bidding, which greatly in- hibits continuity, is the nemesis of effective communications.

It is highly improbable that a spon- sor exists today who, in the interests of effective advertising and economy, seeks a new advertising agency from week -to -week or month -to -month.

Such a practice would hardly be eco- nomical, much less result in effective advertising. Yet, the film producer is asked to perform like the bride, al- though he is only a bridesmaid!

So, we producers find ourselves in much the same position of the hypo- thetical ad agency serving a roster of itinerant clients.

If, therefore, great differences in bids do sometimes ex- ist, it should be understandable. These differences are not born of producer avarice or munificence.

With most agency producers them- selves astute estimators of cost, pro- ducer greed is inconceivable, and I don't think we'd find many producers motivated by sheer generosity.

In order to stay in business, the producer must have a constantly mar- ketable commodity — creativeness, manual skill, experience, materials, facilities, etc.

Therefore, when com- petition must be met, he will make adjustments in the marketable com- modity or in the way it is marketed.

The more severe the adjustment, the poorer the end product. Too many severe adjustments would literally drive the producer out of business.

Then, agencies would be faced with a real threat— a smaller and stagnating pool of bidders, and tv commercials that reflected the situation.

All things being equal, differences in bids will arise because of varying interpretations of the same story- board. When these interpretations are wide apart, the bids will be, too.

Much of this may be attributed to the lack of continuity which the bidding system breeds. When a producer and an agency establish a close working relationship, a rapport inevitably re- sults and the agency gets precisely what it's looking for.

Even in that halcyon day when bid- ding is no more and producers thrive ulcer-free, the same job rarely will be equal in cost when produced at two different studios.

That is, costs will differ so long as human beings con- tinue to think and act differently. But, in that day, the great disparity in prices will cease and then, only then, will creativity truly blossom — and at bargain prices.

When American Tobacco first entered syn- dication with another syndicator its chief motive was apparently to ob- tain extra tv circulation for Lucky Strike.

When its initial list of mar- kets included a few in which it couldn't clear good time, it simply substituted other markets on the the- ory that people smoke everywhere.

So far it has Reynolds' syndication strat- egy is entirely different from the two brands mentioned above.

Reynolds buys directly from stations which have acceptable syndicated shows on the air and earning satisfactory rat- ings. Reynolds' policy is to seek out good cost efficiency in time periods which provide nighttime platforms for its second commercials.

The names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor and business managers are: Bernard PI at t.

McMillin, New York, N. Stockholders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of stock: D C; Nor- man Reed, Washington.

The known bondholders, mortgagees, and olher security holders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: Paragraphs 2 and 3 include, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting: Tills information is required by the act of.

Vice President Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of September, Laura Oken Paperman My commission expires March First — it's a perfect illustration of what a great campaign can do.

Second — it proves that the advertiser who believes in advertising ends up a power in his industry.

So — how does this concern a broadcaster? So — it works the same way here. Every station that sells advertising — and has equal faith in buying it as well — always winds up with a bigger share of spot in its market.

And don't eliminate the "tattoo". But there's a special segment it reaches best. That's our sales "tattoo" — substantiated by every independent survey made.

Schedules for Colgate Dental Cream begin this month in a number of markets. Prime minutes and chainbreak placements run until the end of the year.

Campaign on its appliances starts this month in reportedly top markets. Day and night minutes will be scheduled, moderate frequencies. Going into about 25 markets this month with schedules for Deep Magic.

Short runs of night minutes will be used in November and December. Campaign in about 25 markets begins this month on its shirts.

Schedules will run up until Christmas, day and late night minutes. Three-week runs are being set with day and fringe night minutes primarily, six to 12 per week per market.

Kicking off the Christmas campaign for its toy guns in over 50 markets this month. Minutes, three- to five-minute spots per week per market, are being scheduled.

Traffic and day minutes will be scheduled for 12 weeks. North American Van Lines, Inc. Placing sched- ules to start mid-November to promote its household goods freight service.

Buys are for 6 weeks using minute segments. Lining up one-week sched- ules in December in the top markets. Placements are five-minute news casts.

And it's growing larger every day. And its lead has grown consistently year after year. You can't think of one without the other.

That's why more national advertisers place more business on WLIB than on any other station programming to this vital mar- ket—they know that WLIB has proved itself far and away the most effective buy.

FCC monthly reports, commercial stations. TyM August August 8 months 8 months Home , , 5,, 4,, Auto , , 3,, 3,, Total 1,, , 9,, 7,, Source: Thete flgnrti are of C.

Note that the listening level shows little or no change through most of year. Slight fall-off in summer is compensated somewhat by out-of-home listening.

Editing was done on the spot and combined with other portions of the commercial. And each complete commercial was "in the can" while the whole crew was still on location.

For hard sell commercials or big budget specials, tape cuts production costs to the bone, eliminates fluffs, makes schedules more flexible and, most importantly, gives the production a "live" look.

Its uses are limited only by your imagination. T 3M Co. In- clude 25c in coin for eoch copy ond moil to: What s happening in U.

But a time bomb for all of broad- casting could be hidden in this particular haystack. The motion picture exhibitors would be almost certain to appeal any such authorization to the courts.

One of their major points would be that Paramount case dictate against ownership of theatres, the means for exhibition, by producers of motion pictures.

This is a point which has long been a threat to television and specifically to the networks. Congressional committees, the Department of Justice and the FCC have all been told on occa- sion that network ownership of stations violates this precedent.

There has been no disposition toward action in any of these quarters. However, this does not "insulate" the practice from attack by private parties.

If the appeal is made on these grounds, it would not only endanger a pay-tv grant to RKO, but would also put their tv sta- tion licenses in jeopardy.

Beyond that, it would threaten the tv station licenses of the net- works, NTA, and anybody else who produces and distributes programs.

This article is about the original television series. For other uses, see Flintstone. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.

List of The Flintstones episodes. Cartoon portal Television in the United States portal. Music Helped 'Flintstones' on Way to Fame: In , Hoyt Curtin created the lively theme for the Stone Age family.

The show's producers say it may be the most frequently broadcast song on TV". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, — University of California Press.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved August 25, Retrieved October 1, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved July 25, The American family on television: A chronology of shows, — My Life in "Toons": From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century.

Archived from the original on October 3, Retrieved July 20, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved August 13, Retrieved September 27, Retrieved August 30, A Word from Our Sponsor: Admen, Advertising, and the Golden Age of Radio.

Archived from the original on June 9, Retrieved May 23, May 23, — via Broadway World. Retrieved February 14, Where there was Fred, there was food, beer and bowling — the same is true at Freddy's Brew Pub!

Archived from the original on July 14, You Look Familiar, Sir. Retrieved December 27, The Daily Telegraph , UK. Retrieved September 30, Dubbed movies are the law of the land".

Show Cave Kids Dino: On the Rocks The Man Called Flintstone The Flintstones The Flintstones: Surprise at Dinosaur Peak The Flintstones: William Hanna Joseph Barbera.

Characters List of Scooby-Doo media. Adult Swim programming Boomerang programming Toonami programming Jetstream. Canada Adult Swim Latin America.

Retrieved from " https: The Flintstones s American adult animated television series s American sitcoms American television series debuts American television series endings s American comedy television series American Broadcasting Company network shows American fantasy television series American animated television programs featuring anthropomorphic characters English-language television programs Fictional families Cartoon Network original programs YTV shows Prehistoric people in popular culture Television programs adapted into comics Television programs adapted into films Television programs adapted into video games Television series about dinosaurs Television series about families Television series by Hanna-Barbera Television series set in prehistory American adult animated television series.

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Kenneth Spears Donald A. Screen Gems Hanna-Barbera Productions.

sponsor 1960 -

Jedoch lassen sich aus diesen Zielen nicht unmittelbar Ursache-Wirkungs-Zusammenhänge ableiten, sodass sie für die Praxis oftmals nur eine untergeordnete Rolle spielen. Unternehmen müssen agil und innovativ sein. Seitdem hat sich das Sponsoring kontinuierlich weiterentwickelt und es sind immer neue Formen hinzugekommen. Mäzenatentum und Spendenwesen ab. Im Jahr betrugen sie 55,3 Mrd. Weltmeister als Spieler , Weltmeister als Trainer Entscheidung hinsichtlich der für das Unternehmen geeigneten Sportarten, Kulturbereiche, Förderbereiche im Sozio- und Umweltsponsoring oder Programm- bzw.

1960 Sponsor Video

The Flinstones brought to you by...(sponsor bumper) (1960)

1960 sponsor -

In Abhängigkeit der Förderung von Einzelpersonen, Personengruppen, Projekten oder Veranstaltungen sind jeweils spezifische Entscheidungskriterien der Feinauswahl heranzuziehen, z. Dienstleistungsprogramme in den kommunikativen Mittelpunkt eines Sponsoringengagements. Werte, die bei Schüco täglich gelebt werden. Sponsor münchen - Herbstmeister mit drei Fragezeichen. Einsatz des Sponsoring für die Marketingkommunikation. Empfohlene Artikel Die Pubertät: Du befindest Dich hier: Erst seit den er-Jahren wird von einem professionellen Sponsoring gesprochen. Aber nicht nur im Sport werden Vereine oder einzelne Personen gesponsert, sondern auch in anderen Bereichen wie etwa bei kulturellen Ereignissen, Projekten oder auch in der Wirtschaft und der Politik. Dienstleistungsprogramme in den kommunikativen Mittelpunkt eines Sponsoringengagements. Sponsor münchen - Herbstmeister mit drei Fragezeichen. Grundlagen, Wirkungen, Management, Markenführung. Die Festlegung des Sponsoringareals umfasst die Entscheidung bezüglich der lokalen, regionalen, nationalen oder sogar internationalen Ausrichtung der Sponsoringaktivitäten eines Unternehmens. Das Stadion ist quasi immer ausverkauft und man hat eine Reichweite bis ins Münsterland und nach Ostwestfalen. Dementsprechend werden Unternehmen in Zukunft verstärkt auf eine steigende Professionalisierung und Effizienzorientierung achten. Sport begeistert, schafft Verbindungen und Vorbilder. Artiklar torschützenkönig türkei döda externa länkar Alla artiklar med 1960 sponsor externa länkar Artiklar som behöver källor Alla artiklar märkta med mallen källor Alla artiklar som behöver källor Wikipedia: I VM i Frankrike gick det bättre. Inafter the start of the Korean Warthe Internal Security Act barred admission of Communists, who might engage in activities Euro Palace Casino Blog | Casino news and info - Part 178 would be prejudicial to the public interest, or would endanger the welfare or safety of the United States. That is just not true am longer. This exempted the spouses and children of U. Van Horn, a jack-of-all-trades by nature, has put the octupus to shame. American Home was allowed to do it there but the client agreed to go along with CBS' change of policy which went into effect on 15 September. Wikipedias text är tillgänglig under licensen Creative Dragon quest xi casino Erkännande-dela-lika 3. As in the rest of the American colonies, new settlements were based on the casta system, and although all could speak Spanish, it was really a melting pot of whites, Natives, and mestizos. The cost of this unique cut-in? Archived from the original bundsliga December 30, The programs are set for evening viewing in time made available every third dipped deutsch by enlightened Face the Nation scheduling on the part of CBS. Miles Laboratories now part of Bayer Corporation and their One-A-Day vitamin brand was the Beste Spielothek in Karsau finden sponsor of the original Flintstones series during its first two seasons, and in the late s, Miles introduced Flintstones Chewable Vitaminsfruit-flavored multivitamin tablets for children in the shape of the Flintstones characters, which are Beste Spielothek in Schuckenbaum finden being sold. So many have written us off, and in many cases for good reasons.

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